<%Response.Buffer=True%> Druk National Congress

Druk National Congress - Political Organisation of Bhutan


Language , Religion and Culture

The dialects spoken in Eastern Bhutan are Tshangla lho,Brokpai Kha,Chhoe-Cha nga Cha or Tsamangpai Kha, Daakpa and Zala Kha, Chhali-Tormashong Kha,  Gungdudpai Kha, Sjha kye,Bhumthamgpai Kha,Mangdipai kha and Khengkha. In Tashigang district, Tshangla lho,Brokpai kha,Tsamangpai Kha and Dakpa  and Zala kha are spoken in Tashi Yangtse,Tsangla Lho and  Zala Kha in Merak  Sakten. In Mongar,Tshangla Lho ,Tsamangpai Kha ,Chhali-Tormatshomg Kha and Gungdudpai kha. In Kurtoe, Sjha kye, Zala Kha and Tsamangpai Kha .In Pemagatshel,Tshangla lho. In Bhumthang, Bhumthanmgpai Kha. InTongsa,Mangdipai Kha. In Kheng,Kheng kha. The Ngalongs of the west speak Ngalong kye. A majority of the Lhotshampas speak Nepali, while some of Lhotshampa groups have their own dialects.

 Dzongkha is the national language of Bhutan. Dzongkha as a language originated from the west, and is similar to Ngalong kye, but it developed and came to be recognized as the official language, central Bhutan.

 During the time of the Shabdrung, admistratively, Bhutan was divided into six regions. These regions were administered but the Three Dzongpons of Thimphu, Punakha and Wangdi and the three Penlops of Paro, Daga and Tongsa.  Then, all the Penlop, Dzongpons and government officers were lamas (Monk) who were sent to the different provinces from the Punakha Dratsang(Monastery). Tongsa, which administered the Sharchop kholp Tsip Gye (The largest administrative provinces), was the most powerful of the administrative seats, and had its Penlop sent from Punakha too. When he came he normally brought his attendants with him from Punakha. As a result, the language spoken within the Tongsa Dzong(Fortress), and other Dzongs as well, was by and large ngalong Kye. In the dialect of Central Bhutan in Tongsa, Bhumthang, Kheng, Kurtoe, the word for language is Kha. Thus the people I that region called the language spoken in Togsa Dzong,  Dzong-Kha, or the ‘Dzong Language”. Under the dual system established by the Shabdrung, non- Monks began to be appointed as Penlops, Dzongpons and into other administrative post. Tongsa being no exception. Slowly, Dzongkha-Kha  came to be known as the administrative language in all the eight eastern provinces controlled by the Tongsa Penlop.

 Bhutan was known as Druk Yul or Druk Gyalkhab. The Bhutanese still call their country, Druk Yul. When Jigme Namgyel, Father of first King, became the Tongsa Penlop, he began to la the foundation for his son to succeed him. As Tongsa was the most powerful government seat,he could slowly orchestrate the appointment of his relatives and friends into other prominent government position. Jigme Namgyel was from Kurtoe, thus Bhumthang was the place everyone came to accept as the de facto capital, including external powers. Bhumthang became the administrative control point and also became the reference for Druk Yul. Sir Ugyen Wangchuck became the Tongsa Penlop and declared the first hereditary monarch of Druk Yul in 1907. Even though Punakha was the capital, till the time of the first and second King, Jigme Wangchuck, Bhutan was administered from Bhumthang and the palaces of the first and second kings still exist there.

 By then, Just as ‘Pado’ had become ‘Paro’, and ‘Pungthangkha’ has become ‘Punakha’. ‘Bhumthang’ had corrupted to ‘Bhutan’ by the outsider world and by the time the present ruling dynasty established itself, Dzong-kha, Spoken in the Dzong had become the language used extensively by the administration, until it finally become the official language known as Dzongkha. The Ngalong word for language is kye and had the language come from a Dzong in the west, it would have been Known as Dzong-Kye. Similarly I the dialect of eastern Bhutan, the word for language is lho, so had the language come from a Dzong on the east, it would have been known as ‘Dzong Lho’. The Word for language is kha only in the dialects of central Bhutan.

English language is used in official communication.

 Ngalongs and Sharchops practices both Kagyupa and Nyingmapa Tradition of Mahayana Buddhism together as Ka-Nying Zhungdrel and share same culture. Monpas Practice nature worship. Lhosampas are predominantly Hindus. While some are Buddhist, their language, culture and dress is similar to that of northern Nepal. Religion plays a fundamental role in Bhutanese lives. The rich cultural heritage and tradition of the country still remains intact and deeply ingrained in the everyday lives of its people. Gho for men and Kira for women is the national dress of Bhutan.



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